Reference Sources

F.A.C.T.S. maintains an extensive collection of Tonawanda Site-related documents and records -- much too long to list completely here. We continue to seek additional site-related information necessary to enable the fully informed public participation in the decision making process required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

If you would like more information, including any of the materials listed below, please send your request to: FACTS' webmaster , or

FACTS, Inc.
Box 566
Kenmore, NY 14217

Recommended References (short list):

General

  • "The Federal Connection: A History of U.S. Military Involvement in the Toxic Contamination of Love Canal and the Niagara Frontier Region, An Interim Report to New York State Assembly Speaker Stanley Fink", New York State Assembly Task Force on Toxic Substances, January 29, 1981
  • "A Background Report for the Formerly Utilized Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission Sites Program, September 1980", DOE/EV-0097, UC-70
  • "Evaluation of Disposal Options for Wastes Generated During Remediation of Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Sites, September 28, 1993" [this report is the "SAIC 1993b" reference in the Tonawanda Site draft FS]
  • "Radiation and Human Health", John W. Gofman, MD, PhD, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1981
  • "Radiation-Induced Cancer from Low-Dose Exposure: An Independent Analysis", by John W. Gofman, MD, PhD, edited by Egan O'Connor, Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, Inc., C.N.R. Book Division, PO Box 11207, San Francisco, CA 94101, 1990

Tonawanda Site-specific

Oak Ridge National Laboratory FUSRAP Survey Reports, May 1978:

  • "Radiological Survey of the Former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York", DOE/EV/0005/5
  • "Radiological Survey of the Ashland Oil Company (Former Haist Property), Tonawanda, New York", DOE/EV/005/4
  • "Radiological Survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York", DOE/EV/0005/6

RI/FS-EIS documents for the Tonawanda Site:

  • "Remedial Actions at Four FUSRAP Sites in New York: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement", Garry W. Gibbs, Acting Assistant Secretary, Environmental Safety and Health, U.S. DOE
  • "Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site", BNI, February 1993, DOE/OR/21949-300
  • "Baseline Risk Assessment for the Tonawanda Site", SAIC, August 1993, DOE/OR/21950-100
  • "Feasibility Study for the Tonawanda Site", SAIC, November 1993, DOE/OR/21950-234
  • "Proposed Plan for the Tonawanda Site", SAIC, November 1993, DOE/OR/21950-233

"Interim actions" documents:

  • "Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Praxair Interim Actions", January 1996
  • "Responsiveness Summary: Praxair Interim Actions Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA), Final", May 1996, DOE/OR/21950-1016
  • "Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Building 30 at Praxair, Final [?]", November 1996, DOE/OR/21950-1019

Other documents:

  • "Evaluation of the 1943-to-1946 Liquid Effluent Discharge from the Linde Air Products Company Ceramics Plant, December 1981", prepared for U.S. DOE by The Aerospace Corporation, Aerospace Report No. ATR-82 (7963-04)-2
  • "Walkover Scan of Seaway, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, Tonawanda, NY, July 28 - August 12, 1986", TMA/Eberline, BNI Subcontract 14501-SC-1
  • "Comments on the Environmental Impact Statement Documents for the Tonawanda Site", prepared for the Erie County Department of Environment and Planning, Martin N. Haas, November 11 and 29, 1993

Relevant Laws and Regulations:

  • Atomic Energy Act of 1946: P.L. 79-585; 60 Stat. 755; 42 USC 1801 et seq.
  • Atomic Energy Act of 1954: P.L. 83-703; 68 Stat. 919; 42 USC 2011 et seq.
  • Clean Air Act (NESHAPs): 42 USC 7412
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA): P.L. 96-510; 94 Stat. 2767; 42 USC 9601-9657
  • Energy Reorganization Act of 1974: P.L. 93-438; 88 Stat. 1233; 42 USC 5814 et seq.
  • HSWA Amendments to RCRA (1984): P.L. 98-616; 98 Stat. 3221; 42 USC 6901, 6902, 6905, 6912, 6915- 6917, 6921-6926, 6927-6931, 6933, 6935-6939a, 6941, 6943-6945, 6948, 6949a, 6956, 6962, 6972, 6973, 6976, 6979a, 6979b, 6982, 6984, 6991, 6991a-6991i
  • National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA): P.L. 91-190; 83 Stat. 852; 42 USC 4321, 4331-4335, 4341-4347 P.L. 94-52, 89 Stat. 258, 42 USC 4343, 4346a, 4346b, 4347 P.L. 94-83, 89 Stat. 424, 42 USC 4332
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA): P.L. 94-580; 90 Stat. 2795; 42 USC 6901-6907, 6911-6916, 6921-6931, 6941-6949, 6951-6954, 6961-6964, 6971-6979, 6981-6986
  • Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA): P.L. 99-499; 100 Stat. 1613; numerous USC Sections
  • Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act or 1978 (UMTRCA): P.L. 95-604; 92 Stat. 3021; 42 USC 2014, 2021, 2022, 2111, 2113, 2114, 2201, 7901, 7911-7925, 7941, 7942
  • UMTRCA Amendments (1979): P.L. 96-106; 93 Stat. 799; 42 USC 2021 note
  • UMTRCA Amendments (1983): P.L. 97-415; 96 Stat. 2078; 42 USC 2021 note, 7912, 7918
  • UMTRCA Amendments (1988): P.L. 100-616; 102 Stat. 3192; 42 USC 7916, 7922
  • UMTRCA Amendments (1992): P.L. 102-486; 106 Stat.2951; 42 USC 7922
  • NRC Regulations: both current and historic 10 CFR 40, 10 CFR 20, 10 CFR 30, and 10 CFR 150
  • EPA Regulations: 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, 40 CFR 192, 40 CFR 264
  • N.Y. State Regulations: 6 NYCRR Part 219, 6 NYCRR Part 360, 6 NYCRR Part 380, State Industrial Code Rule 38 (12 NYCRR Part 38)

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